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RPW in Spain

 

By

 

 Dr. Tomas Cabello, Almeria, June 2002

 

tcabellogarcia@hotmail.com

Introduction:

The first attacks of this pest were detected in 1993, in Motril and Almunecar (Municipal Districs, Granada Province, South of Spain). Their origin seems to be due to the imported palms (plants with great development), via Barcelona port, until the Granada area, without an appropriate inspection neither phytosanitary control. Although it is difficult to specify their origin and date, it seems that the introduction was carries out at the beginning of the 90's years; this dates it was imported several departures of palm plants, with origin in: Tunisia, Egypt or Saudia Arabia. However, the damages (for destruction of an important number of trees) they don't take place until half of the 90's years; it due to a great drought that was presented in the South Spain that forced to not watering the public gardens. In this circumstances, the problem was detected becauses the increase of damage on trees with high hidric stress.

The identification of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in Spain (Red Palm Weevil) was carried out for the Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agronomy (University of Almeria). The material was colleted among July of 1994 and December of 1995, in the municipal districs of Motril and Almunecar (Granada; Spain); from this date and periodically, we have been carried out the collection of more speciems, in all the cases they have corresponded to R. ferrugineus species. .

As complementary data it is necessary to point out that:

. In the Iberian Peninsula, except for the "palmito" (Chamaerops humilis) , all the Palmacea species have been introduced. In Europe there are two species of autochthonous palm: Ch. humilis and the Cretean palm.

. The cultivation of the palm in our country it is not very important (539 hectares), with a harvest value, in 1994, of 9 millions of euros.

. The biggest economic value of palm in Spain, it is due to the ornamental species that are broadly utilized. The most utilized species, so much in public gardens as private, is the Canary palm (Phoenix canariensis).

. Finally, in the Canary Islands exists an autochthonous palm (Phoenix canariensis) that has evolved in absence of phytophagous below to Rhynchophorus genus, that if they are present in Africa.

 Developed works and implicated organisms.

The works carried out, from the RPW introduction, according to the European Unio legislation, they have had as objective to eradicate to the pest. In the works they have intervened:

."Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentaci6n" (Ministry of Agriculture, Spanish Government): that it is the responsible for one the phytosanitary inspection at border; as well as the coordination of Crop Protection at state level.

. "Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca" (Andalusia, Regional Governmet): responsible for the Crop Protection in Andalusia.

. Local Administration: City councils of the affected areas, because they have the competitions in parks and gardens (so much public as private).

As scientific committee:

. Department of Vegetable Protection (INIA-CIT).

. Lab. of entomology. Fc Agronomy (E.P.S.). Almeria University.

All the works have been carried out, in coordinated form, by means of periodic meetings, of a Technical Committee constituted by the national, regional and local authorities; jointly with INIA-CIT and the University of Almeria.

The distribution of the works, for implicated organisms, it has been the following one:

. City councils: realization of the measures eradication and control measures in the affected areas, so much in public parks as private gardens.

. Regional Government: legal and quarantine regulations, coordination and financing of eradication and pest control works. They developed it the trials of chemical control applications, under field conditions.

. National Government: legal and quarantine regulations too.

. INIA-CIT: Setting to trap methods of pest detection, by means of pheromones and kairomones.

. Almeria University: It is detailed it later on.

Finally, in this section, it is necessary to point out that the works developed by INIA and the University of Almeria, they were carried out by means of a research project (at the moment concluded) that was financed by the European Community and Spain.

 Works carried out by the University of Almeria.

the Laboratory of Entomology has developed in these last years the following lines:

. Rearing on artificial diet of RPW.

. Studies on the digestive physiology of this species. . Biology studies of RPW. . Host plant studies.

. Chemical and biological control of this pest.

Current situation gives the plague.

From the beginning of the damages in 1993 in Almunecar and Motril (Granada); the species increased its incidence and distribution gives slow form. This way, in 1997, the area infested squatter approximately 30 km. give longitude and 1 km of width, coastwise give Granada, arriving to an altitude gives 100 meters.

Is the species at the present time, in Spain (see map), in the coast area of Granada and Malaga Provinces. In Granada, the municipal districs are 3: Almunecar, Salobrena y Motril; and 3 in Malaga: Nerja, Frigiliana y Torrox; affecting so much to palms located in public parks, like in private gardens. In this area, does it seem that the pest has stopped its expansion.

Perspective and valuation.

After 7 years of works with RPW, in Spain, it should be indicated that:

. It has been impossible to eradicate the introduced pest species. It has come it motivated, on one hand, to the capacity of survival of species to low temperatures, and on the other hand, the impossibility gives inspection and control of infested palms, in private gardens; in this area, many residences exist that belong to foreigners, they happen to it little time in their houses; for that, it is impossible to contact with the proprietors to be able to eliminate the infested palms. Everything supposes it that reservoirs exist of the pest that is good for new infestations.

 The RPW has stabilized its area of distribution in Spain. It has been due, in the first place, the the performances of the Parks and Gardens Services of the City councils, that they have carried out an important work of chemical control on affected palms; a substitution has also taken place of the Canary palm (very sensitive and attractive host for RPW) for other palm species, mainly Washingtonia robusta that has been demonstrated resistant. On the other hand, it has been fundamental the work gives the Crop Protection Services, from the regional government, with the legal an quarantine measures (prohibition of production and circulation of vegetable material, palms, in the affected area). Also, the only native palm (Ch. humilis) that is distributed thoroughly for the South and East of Spain, that had facilitated the pest expansion, it is not RPW host.

. The chemical control, by means of the external pulverization and insecticide

injections in the trunk, presents a half effectiveness. Completely null in very infested palms.

. The use of biological control, by means of nematodes, presents a very good

perspectives; with high effectiveness under laboratory conditions. The used species have been the available ones at grade commercial (Heterorhabditis megidis and H. bacteriophora). The problem is to take the nematodes to the localization places of RPW larvae inside of trunk.

. The pheromone-kairomone composition used have been not effective in the RPW adult captures.

 Bibliography on the topic (works carried out in Spain).

ALARCON, F.J.; MARTiNEZ, T.; BARRANCO, P.; DiAZ, M.; MOYANO, F.J.; CABELLO, T., 1999. Caracterizaci6n prelimilar de las proteasas digestivas durante el desarrollo larvario del gorgojo rojo de las palmeras (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). Congreso Nacional de Entomologfa Aplicada. Almerfa (Espana). Congresos y Jornadas num. 53/99. Consejerfa de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucfa: 143.

ALARCON, F.J.; MARTiNEZ, T.; BARRANCO, P.; CABELLO, T.; DiAZ, M.; MOYANO, F.J., 2002. Digestive porteases during development of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790)(Col.: Curculionidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 32: 265-274.

BARRANCO, P.; DE LA PENA, J.; CABELLO, T., 1996a. EI picudo rojo de las palmeras, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), nueva plaga en Europa (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Phytoma-Espana, 76: 36-40.

BARRANCO, P.; DE LA PENA, J.; CABELLO, T., 1996b. Un nuevo Curculi6nido tropical para la fauna europea, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790),(Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bo/etin de la Asociaci6n Espanola de Entomo/ogia, 20: 257-258.

 BARRANCO, P.; PENA, J. DE LA; CABELLO, T., 1996c. Cria artificial de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). IV Congreso Nacional de la Sociedad Espanola para las Ciencias del Animal de Laboratorio. Viloria (Espana): CC.03. BARRANCO, P.; PENA, J. DE LA; CABELLO, T., 1997a. Eficacia del control quimico de la nueva plaga de lag palmeras Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). VI Jornadas Cientificas de la Sociedad Espanola de Entomologia Aplicada. Lerida (Espana): 153.

BARRANCO, P.; PENA, J. DE LA; CABELLO, T., 1997b. Biologia de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Col.: Curculionidae) en condiciones controladas. VI Jornadas Cientificas de la Sociedad Espanola de Entomologia Aplicada. Lerida (Espana): 154.

BARRANCO, P.; PENA, J. DE LA; MARTiN, M.M.; CABELLO, T., 1998. Eficacia del control quimico de la nueva plaga de lag palmeras Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Col.: Curculionidae). Bo/etin de Sanidad Vegetal, Playas, 24: 301-306.

BARRANCO, P.; MARTiN, M.M.; PENA DE LA J.; RIVAS, P.; CABELLO, T., 1999a. Rango de hospedantes de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) y diametro de la palmera hospedante (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. Almeria (Espana). Congresos y Jornadas nt/m. 53/99. Consejerfa de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucia: 184.

BARRANCO, P.; MARTiN, M.M.; PENA DE LA J.; RIVAS, P.; CABELLO, T., 1999b. Estadios postembrionarios de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1870) (Col.: Curculionidae). Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. Almeria (Espana). Congresos y Jornadas nt/m. 53/99. Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucia: 185.

BARRANCO, P; DE LA PENA, J.A.; MARTiN, M.M.; CABELLO, T., 2000. Rango de hospedantes de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver, 1790) y diametro de la palmera hasped ante (Col.: Curculionidae). Bo/etin de Sanidad Vegetal, Playas, 26: 73-78.

BARRANCO, P.; MARTiN, M.M.; PENA, J. DE LA; CABELLO, T., 2001. Biologia del curculi6nido raja de la palmera, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae) en el sur de Espana: efectos de temperatura y altitud. 1/Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. Pamplona (Espana): 82.

CABELLO, T.; DE LA PENA, J.; BELDA, J.; BARRANCO, P., 1997. Laboratory evaluation of imidacloprid and oxamyl against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Ann. Appli. BioI., 130 (Supplement). Test of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, 18: 6-7.

ESTEBAN-DuRAN, J.; VELA, J. L.; BEmA-CRESPO, F.; JIMENEZ-ALVAREZ, A., 1998. Biologia del curculi6nido ferruginoso de lag palmeras Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) en laboratorio y campo: cicio en cautividad, peculiaridades biol6gicas en su zona de introducci6n en Espana y metodos biol6gicos de detecci6n Y posible control (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophorinae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal- Playas, 24: 737 - 748.

ESTEBAN-DuRAN, J.; VELA, J. L.; BEITIA-CRESPO, F.; JIMENEZ-ALVAREZ, A., 1998. Curculionidos ex6ticos susceptibles de ser introducidos en Espana y otros paises de la Uni6n Europea a traves de vegetales importados (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhynchophorinae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal - Playas, 24: 23-40.

ESTEBAN-DuRAN, J. R.; FRANCOIS, A.; JIMENEZ-ALVAREZ, A.; BEITIA-CRESPO, F.; SANCHEZ-BRUNETE, C., 1999. EI curculi6nido ferruginoso de las palmeras Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) y su adaptaci6n en algunas zonas costeras mediterraneas de Granada y Malaga. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophorinae). Terralia, 6: 20-26.

MARTIN, M.M.; BARRANCO, P.; CABELLO, T., 2001 a. Biometria del estado de larva de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). XIX Jornadas de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia . Badajoz (Espana): 78.

MARTIN, M.M.; BARRANCO, P.; BELDA, J.E.; CABELLO, T., 2001 b. Influencia del sustrato alimenticio y temperatura en la biologia de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). XIX Jornadas de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia . Badajoz (Espana): 79.

MARTIN, M.M.; BARRANCO, P.; BELDA, J.E.; CABELLO, T., 2001 c. Parametros biol6gicos de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae) en condiciones de cria prolongada. XIX Jornadas de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia . Badajoz (Espana): 80.

MARTiN, M.M.; CABELLO, T.; BARRANCO, P., 2001 e. Control biol6gico del curculi6nido raja de las palmeras, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). . II Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. Pamplona (Espana): 112-113.

MARTiN, M.M.; BARRANCO, P.; BELDA, J.E.; CABELLO, T., 2001 d. Limitaci6n del desarrollo de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae) par temperaturas minimas. . II Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. Pamplona (Espana): 56.

MARTIN, M.M., 2002. Biologia, ecologia y control del curculionido raja de  las palmeras, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Col.: Curculionidae). Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Almeria (pendiente de lectura).

MARTiNEZ, T.; ALARCON, F.J.; BARRANCO, P.; DiAZ, M.; MOYANO, F.J.; CABELLO, T., 1999. Caracterizaci6n de las enzimas amiloliticas de Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae) :desarrollo ontogenico e influencia del tipo de dieta. Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Aplicada. lmeria (Espana). Congresos y Jornadas num. 53/99. Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucia: 144.

ODRIOZOLA, J.M; GARCiA, J.M.; GoNzALEZ, A.; GIL, P., 1999. Asymmetric synthesis of phoenicol, ferrugineol and cruentol, aggregation pheromones of Rhynchophorus spp. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 10: 4627-4632.

 

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